DNS root servers are the most critical component for a successful working of internet. Because the first step in resolving any domain name and something happens to them at large, by which the internet will be affected.
First of all we have to know what the DNS root name servers actually do and how they are operate. This servers are a small but essential part of the internet DomainName System (DNS). Which is reliably publish the contents of one small file to the internet. The file is called the root zone file.
Compare to many other services on the internet this service is rather unspectacular. The function and content of the root zone file are what make it special and cause it to be at the focus of increased attention. The root zone file is at the apex of a hierarchical distributed database called the Domain Name System (DNS). This database is used by almost all Internet applications to translate worldwide unique names like www.hostthebiz.com into other identifiers; the web, e-mail and many other services make use of the DNS.
DNS was made, just because we human can remember names better than numbers. But computer’s and network addresses are always numbers. So there must be some technology in between that will sit and translate names to number’s. But its only a starting point of the entire translation procedure, because this root servers never does the complete job of translation. Although we humans will read it like www dot example dot com. The computer that will initiate the job of translation will start reading it from right to left rather than left to right. It will be something like dot com example www. So the translating will begin its job from right to left, with dot com example www. The first dot, indicates root servers. DNS server computer/software must know the number (numerical IP address) of them, because they are the starting point. There are 13 IP addresses/number of these DOT servers that every DNS software already know by default.
Root servers are operate by twelve organization. Each operator is responsible for providing reliable DNS service to the internet at large from their address. Some operators still provide the service from one location with one or more physical machines. But other operator provide the service from multiple locations using a method called ‘any cast’. The actual root name servers machines are located at more than 80 location in 34 countries.